Along with Apple and Huawei, Samsung is one of the few smartphone makers capable of designing the advanced chipsets it needs (although US sanctions have severely hampered Huawei's chip design infrastructure). Samsung's flagship Exynos chips have been a regular part of the company's high-end handsets for several years, and almost all Galaxy S and Galaxy Note devices have benefited from these chipsets. But when did the story of designing and manufacturing Samsung Exynos chips begin? In this article, we are going to review the history of the evolution of Exynos chips, which began in 2010 and continues to this day.
2010: The story begins with a chip called Hummingbird
It all starts with the production of Samsung's first smartphone in the Galaxy S series. Launched in 2010, the phone uses one of Samsung's own chipsets. But it is interesting to know that this chipset was originally called Hummingbird and later renamed Exynos 3 Single. The 45nm chip's CPU consisted of a single 1 GHz Cortex-A8 core. Of course, the existence of a 1 GHz core at that time was unprecedented, so much so that Samsung, at the unveiling of this chipset in 2009, referred to it as the first 1 GHz chip in the mobile industry.
Samsung i9000 Galaxy S
The most important phones equipped with Hummingbird (or Exynos 3 Single) are: : Galaxy S and Nexus S. 2011: The first Exynos chip literally
If we want to be technically correct, the beginning of the Exynos chipset dates back to 2011 and the construction of the 45-nanometer Exynos 4210 Dual chip. This chip was first used in the construction of the Galaxy S2 and is among the first wave of dual-core processors. Other specifications of this chipset include the Mali-400MP4 GPU. This is the first time that ARM GPUs have been used in one of the flagship Galaxy S series phones (a trend that has continued to this day and before the Samsung-AMD partnership agreement). Another point is that the Exynos 4210 Dual (compared to Hummingbird) supported higher resolution displays (ie 900 1,440 pixels).
Samsung Galaxy Note N7000
some of the most prominent devices The Exynos 4210 Dual was built using the Galaxy Note, Galaxy S II and Meizu MX. 2012: Industry moves to quad-core
The most important trend in the mobile chip industry in 2012 was the move to quad-core CPUs, and Samsung did not lag behind with the construction of the Exynos 4412 quad-core chipset. This 32-nanometer chip was produced this time with 4 Cortex-A9 cores. This quad-core configuration was well received because the Android operating system and many non-Google applications had accepted quad-core support. Of course, this chip may not be to the liking of gamers, because the Exynos 4412 still used the GPU of the previous generation chip. The transition from 45-nanometer to 32-nanometer lithography (at least on paper) was promising a huge change.
Samsung Galaxy Note II
Advanced devices such as the Galaxy Note 2, Galaxy S3 and two Lenovo phones called Lenovo K860 and K860i used the Exynos 4412 chip. 2013: Stop at the four cores ?! The transition from single-core to dual-core and then quad-core CPUs never happened in just a few years. But in 2013, we saw that Samsung used an 8-core chip for the first time in the Galaxy S4. The 28-nanometer chip was called the Exynos 5410, and its CPU consisted of a powerful cluster of four Cortex-A15 cores and a weaker cluster of four Cortex-A7 cores.
Samsung Galaxy S4
The presence of these two strong and weak clusters is subconsciously reminiscent of the big.LITTLE design. But apparently there was a major flaw in the design of the Exynos 5410 clusters. The problem was that only one cluster could function at a time. In other words, all 8 cores were never served to the chip at the same time, and it was not even possible for an A15 and A7 cores to be active together. So this design was a little weird and in no way in line with the goals of the 8-core chipsets. To solve this problem, in late 2013, Samsung released a more complete version of the chip called the Exynos 5420. In this chip (if needed) all 8 cores were active at the same time. Changing the graphics from the PowerVR SGX544MP3 to the Mali T628 MP6 was another new feature of this chipset, and the lack of support for LTE and limited video recording to 1080p/60fps were other notable options.
Galaxy S4 and Galaxy Note 3 are among the most famous phones that entered the market with these chipsets. 2014: Exynos's victory over Snapdragon in the 64-bit category in 2014 was very pleasing for Samsung, as the company managed to bring one of the best S series phones, the Galaxy S5, to its customers. But this phone was only produced with the Snapdragon 801 and the Exynos version was not in use. In the same year, Samsung introduced the Galaxy Note 4 and Note Edge devices, which were built using the new Exynos 5433 chipset. Built on 20-nanometer lithography, the Exynos 5433 outperformed its rival Qualcomm (still 32-bit) in the 64-bit category.
Samsung Galaxy S5
Stronger CPU cluster in Exynos 5433 has 4 Cortex-A57 cores and the cluster is weaker than 4 Cortex- cores A53 was formed. The resolution of the chip did not change from the previous generation, but the camera performance was improved and the chip supported a 16-megapixel camera on the back and a 3.7-megapixel selfie camera on the front. This resolution may seem too low for the front-facing camera, but the truth is that the resolution of the selfie camera on any of Samsung's flagship devices at the time was less than 5 megapixels. Not to mention, the Exynos 5433 is the first Exynos chip to support LTE connectivity.
As mentioned, the Galaxy Note 4 and Note Edge are among the most flagship devices equipped with the Exynos 5433. 2015: The flagship processor of the year
Many experts believe that among competitors from Qualcomm, MediaTek and Huawei in 2015, the Exynos 7420 chip is a head and neck higher and can even be considered the best chipset in Samsung's history. It was considered at the time of its release. Here again we have the same Cortex-A57 and A53 cores and the same GPU as before (Mali-T760), except that the Exynos 7420 with 14nm lithography has a resolution of 4K (or 2,160 4,096 pixels or 2,400 3,840 pixels). ) Supports and can handle LPDDR4 RAM and UFS 2.0 internal storage. Add support for a 20-megapixel camera on the back and an 8-megapixel camera on the front and 4K video recording at 30 frames per second (with HEVC codec).
Samsung Galaxy Note5
One of the best examples of Exynos 7420 built in, we can find the Galaxy Note5 series Name the Galaxy S6 and Meizu Pro 5. 2016: The first Exynos chipset with a custom CPU By 2016, Samsung had relied on ARM CPUs to build all Exynos chips. But the Exynos 8890 chipset - launched in 2016 - is a milestone in the design process of Exynos chipsets, as Samsung first used the first generation of CPUs designed by the company itself called Mongoose. Thus, the CPU in the Exynos 8890 consists of four Mongoose M1 cores in the more powerful cluster and four Cortex-A53 cores in the weaker cluster.
Samsung Galaxy S7
Like the previous generation, the Exynos 8890 is made with 14nm lithography and supports 4K resolution. But in this new chip, Samsung has provided support for a 24-megapixel camera (or two 12-megapixel cameras) on the back and a selfie camera with a maximum resolution of 13 megapixels. According to some benchmarks, the Exynos 8890 was second only to the Kirin 960 in terms of CPU performance, but third in terms of graphics processing, behind the Snapdragon 835 and Kirin 960. Powerful phones like the Galaxy Note7, Galaxy S7 and Meizu Pro 6 Plus series came with the Exynos 8890 chipset. 2017: The advent of heterogeneous computing
Samsung's flagship processor this year was named Exynos 8895. Despite a small numerical change in the chip title, we see some major changes in this chipset; The choice of 10nm lithography to make the Exynos 8895, while reducing the size of the chipset, also significantly reduced its consumption. Also, using the Mali-G71 MP20 graphics processor, the graphics power of this chip was more than the previous generation.
Samsung Galaxy S8
The chip is Samsung's first use of a unit called a VPU, or "vision processing unit," which performed tasks such as recognizing a scene or object. This is Samsung's first attempt at machine learning chipsets. Add security features to manage biometric authentication (such as fingerprint sensor and iris recognition) We should also add Exynos 8895 capabilities. Dual ISP design, support for 4K/120fps video capture, 28-megapixel main camera resolution (or dual 16-megapixel) and 28-megapixel selfie camera and Gigabit LTE connection are other features of this processor.
Galaxy Note8, Galaxy S8 and Meizu 15 Plus devices entered the market with Exynos 8895 chip. 2018: Evolution, Not Evolution At first, it seemed that the new Exynos 9810 chip was just an updated version of the Exynos 8895, but a closer look reveals that the Exynos 9810 has been significantly upgraded in both the CPU and GPU departments. Is. The CPU of this chipset had 2 clusters with completely new cores: 4 third generation Mongoose cores and 4 Cortex-A55 cores. Graphically, we also saw that Samsung preferred the Mali-G72 MP18 processor. Other than that, the chip uses the same 10nm lithography and still supports LPDDR4X RAM, UFS 2.1 internal storage, 4K resolution for the display, and 4K video recording at 120fps. Of course, increasing the LTE network speed to 1.2 Gbps and supporting two 16-megapixel cameras (or a 24-megapixel camera) on the back are new features in the Exynos 9810.
Samsung Galaxy Note9
The most prominent phones made using Exynos 9810 are the Galaxy Note10 Lite, Galaxy Note9, Galaxy S9 and Meizu 15 Plus. It was the last Exynos flagship chip to be used in Meizu handsets. 2019: Plan for Samsung's future chipsets
Samsung's flagship chipset in 2019 - the Exynos 9820 - laid the groundwork for the design of Exynos chipsets to this day. First, Samsung used a three-cluster CPU in the chip (based on MediaTek) consisting of two powerful Mongoose M4 cores, two mid-range Cortex-A75 cores, and finally four weaker Cortex-A55 cores. Later, Samsung - this time following the example of Huawei - added an NPU (neural processing unit) to its Exynos chipsets for the first time.
Samsung Galaxy S10 Plus
Exynos 9820 8nm lithography is made. Improved hardware security, 2 Gbps download speed on 4G network and support for UFS 3.0 internal memory are other new features of this chip. But perhaps the most appealing feature of the Exynos 9820 is its support for 8K video recording at 30 frames per second. Some tests show that the Exynos 9820 - thanks to its powerful custom cores - outperforms the Snapdragon 855 in terms of single-core CPU performance. But in other areas, including graphics performance, longer battery life and lower heat output, this is the Snapdragon 855, which is ahead of its Korean rival.
Exynos 9820 was used in the production of all Galaxy S10 series smartphones. It should be noted that in the same year, Samsung produced another version of this chip called Exynos 9825 and used it in the production of Galaxy Note10 series phones. 2020: Lowest score for Exynos
Samsung's flagship chip this year was called the Exynos 990. The Exynos 990 looked good on flagship chip paper. The 7-nanometer chipset has a three-cluster CPU consisting of two powerful Mongoose M5 cores, two mid-range Cortex-A76 cores and four weaker Cortex-A55 cores. It is interesting to know that due to the abandonment of custom designs by Samsung in late 2019, this was the last Exynos chip to be designed with Mongoose cores.
Samsung Galaxy S20
but Exynos 990 on As it should be and maybe you did not succeed. Perhaps the most obvious sign of this failure is that, unlike previous Exynos chips, which were originally intended for handsets in the South Korean market, the Exynos 990 was not used in any of the Galaxy S20 series devices launched in the domestic market.
Some tests suggest that the Galaxy S20 Plus lags behind the Snapdragon 865 Galaxy S20 Plus in almost all CPU and GPU benchmarks in the Exynos 990 version. Of course, this does not mean that the Exynos 990 did badly in other cases. With an external 5G modem, the chip supports both the fifth-generation wavelengths below 6 GHz. The Exynos 990 is also the first Exynos chip to support high upgrade rates of 120Hz (for QHD + monitors) and 60Hz (for 4K displays). Supporting a 108-megapixel camera (or two 24.5-megapixel cameras) on the back, the chip showed that it also has a lot to say about optics.
The Exynos 990 chipset was used in the handsets of the Galaxy S20 series, Galaxy Note20 series and Galaxy S20 FE. 2021: End of an Era?
If you think Exynos chips in 2021 are somehow a temporary solution for Samsung, you are not wrong, as Samsung partnered with AMD this year to boost its chip GPUs. has informed. Samsung's flagship chipset was named Exynos 2100 this year, and we can call it one of the best chips in Exynos history. The chip's CPU - just like its main rival Snapdragon 888 CPU - has three clusters consisting of one powerful Cortex-X1 core, three mid-range Cortex-A78 cores and four weaker Cortex-A55 cores.
Exynos 2100 is the first Exynos chip to be equipped with a 5G integrated modem. Also, by increasing the number of NPU cores from two to three cores, it goes without saying that the Exynos 2100 performs better in terms of machine learning. Other specifications of this chip include support for LPDDR5 RAM, UFS 3.1 internal memory, 144Hz upgrade rate for QHD + monitors and 120Hz for 4K displays. In the optics department, the chip can also be used on devices with a 200-megapixel camera (or two 32-megapixel cameras) on the back. The Exynos 2100 finally supports 6 camera sensors and 8K video recording at 30 frames per second.
The Samsung Galaxy S21 family
Exynos 2100 is a chipset that Samsung has used in the production of the flagship Galaxy S21 series phones. 2022: What to expect from the next-generation Exynos?
Given Samsung's shift to AMD GPUs, it can be speculated that next year will mark the beginning of a new era for Exynos chipsets. According to Samsung, the successor to the Exynos 2100 will definitely have an AMD graphics processor. Also, given the discard of the Mongoose custom cores and Samsung's return to the ARM cores, the CPU configuration on the next Exynos chip will likely be as follows: one Cortex-X2 core, three Cortex-A710 cores and four Cortex-A510 cores. .